Analysing and understanding the true impact of hosting events
The GSI Report 2015 is the first in a series of annual reports studying the impact of sport. World championships and multisport games events from 2014 are analysed and assessed via the methodologies, analytical tools and ratings developed by Sportcal through its Global Sports Impact (GSI) Project which was established in 2011.


Executive Summary

The year 2014 was a big one for sport. The Fifa World Cup in Brazil, the Sochi winter Olympics, four other major multi-sport games and over 70 major world championships took place, covering a wide variety of sports.
Over 13 million people bought tickets for these events and almost 330 million people attended 25 of the leading sporting events of 2014 which included the NBA, NFL, MLB, English Premier League, German Bundesliga and Formula 1.
Sport is big business. But how much do we know about the people that attend these events and how much do we understand about the true impact of these sports?
For the first time in a unique publication, The Global Sports Impact (GSI) Report 2015 analyses the impacts that these events had on their host cities and nations in 2014.
The GSI Report 2015 is the first in a series of annual reports that studies the previous year’s events and assesses them using the methodologies, analytical tools and ratings being developed by Sportcal through its Global Sports Impact (GSI) Project which was established in 2011.
The GSI Project aims to create a standard way in which the various impacts of sports events can be identified, measured and analysed, so providing to sport and all its stakeholders a new and comprehensive way of measuring the real impact of sport. 
It aims to challenge the current wisdom and the way in which sports events are measured and communicated today.
Sport is under-valued. The true impact of sport is not really understood. It is currently measured by economic and media impacts, not all of which convey the true picture.
There are no standard methodologies for measuring the impact of sport. Every country, every sport, every consultancy varies in its respective methodologies. It is almost impossible to compare one event with another, as there is little consistency in the way data is gathered and analysed.
The GSI Project is developing a methodology to allow sports federations, event organisers, host cities and nations to use a common methodology to gather and measure information about their events, and to present this in a standard way.
The GSI Report 2015 considers 77 major world events held in 2014 over a series of economic, sporting, media and social indicators, and is packed with data, analysis and case studies on some of the most compelling events of 2014.
If you read one sports industry report this year make sure it is the GSI Report 2015. It is a must-have report for anyone involved in sport.


1. ‘Why Sport Matters’

The GSI Report starts with an essay on ‘Why Sport Matters’ written by John Siner, formerly of the International Olympic Committee, and the founder of ‘Why Sport Matters’. The essay discusses why sport plays a unique role in society, why it creates a common ground of understanding and why it has such a deep influence on our lives. Sport is used as an instrument to deliver various political outcomes, and major sports events have become a huge global industry with billions of dollars spent every year in delivering major sporting events. But it remains a fact that we don’t honestly realize the true meaning and specific impact of sport.

2. Events and Cities

More world championships and multi-sport games are being added to the sporting calendar each year. The Youth Olympic Games and the FIBA 3x3 World Championships are among the events that have been added to the sporting calendar in the last five years alone. Added to this are events that have increased their frequency of delivery, like the European Athletics Championships which moved from a four-year to a two-year cycle in 2012. But why this increase in sporting events, and why do cities want to host these events?

3. The Global Sports Impact Project

The GSI Project was started in 2011 to create some standard ways in which the impact of sport can be identified, measured and analysed, so providing to sport, and all its stakeholders, a new, comprehensive and objective picture of the full potential of sport. It also aims to build a community to exchange knowledge and insights and to create a unique forum to promote discussion around the positive and negative impacts of sport. GSI is a collaborative initiative, driven and led by Sportcal, which unites a worldwide network of partners, experts and stakeholders.

4. Event Bidding Analysis 

Which was the most successful nation in bidding to host major sporting events in 2014? Russia, Canada and the United Kingdom are the highest ranked Global Sports Nations in 2014 but were they the most successful at attracting major sporting events. Sportcal combines the data from its Bidding service with the GSI Events Rating system and produces analysis on which nations were the most successful at bidding for major sports events in 2014.

5. Economic Impact

The key theme of this section is: what is the economic impact of sport and how do we measure it? Economic impact is one of the key measures used to justify the hosting of major sporting events. It has become the main tool used by governments and cities to show a return on their investment in sport. In many cases it is the only justification given for hosting an event. But there is no standard measurement of sport’s economic impact. Every country, every government, every consultancy has a different methodology that is used to measure economic impact which means that no event can really be compared with another event when it is hosted in a different country.

6. Media Impact

The impact of media has always been challenging to measure, but with the growth of digital platforms, the internet and now social media it has become even more complicated. This chapter explores what are the standard measurements used to measure media impact and poses the question: do these work for all stakeholders? Cumulative audiences and Advertising Value Equivalency are considered as standard measures within the media world, but do they give us a true reflection of media impact? Online and social media are starting to gain traction as key drivers of event exposure but who is engaging with these media and how do we measure their impacts? The GSI Sports Social Media Index and GSI IF Social Media Index provide an indication of who is driving this area of sport.

7. Sponsorship Impact

Sponsorship activation is an area of impact that is frequently ignored by host cities, governments and rights owners. Sponsors spend millions of dollars every year on rights activation, reaching millions of sports fans globally but very rarely are their activities included in impact studies. Twelve of the top 20 Best Global Brands, according to Interbrand, are involved in sponsoring at least one of the major events studied in the GSI Report. The identities of these brands and of the events in which they are involved are explored in this chapter, together with analysis on sponsorship deals by brand and by sector.

8. Sporting Impact

Do 10,000 Olympic athletes have more impact than 736 national footballers at the Fifa World Cup? What is sporting impact and how can we measure it? Are the number of competitors and nations significant or should the focus be on the quality of the athletes? How global are sports events and what is their ‘Continental Reach’? How many regions in the world are hosting events and how many athletes from these regions participate in these events? Sports participation comes in many different forms and more and more federations are attaching mass participation events to their major world championships. What form does this participation take and what numbers are they generating?

9. Social Impact

The GSI Project has studied the social impact of sport over a long period of time and without doubt it is the most challenging of all impacts to study. There is very little research undertaken about the social impact of sport at most sporting events.

Social impact is hard to measure because of its intangible nature and the difficulty in converting it into pure monetary values. How do you measure pride and social inclusion in monetary terms? Yet the unique power of sport to attract, mobilise and inspire has long been recognised by the United Nations and it is increasingly trying to harness this power to achieve a range of outcomes and policies. This chapter looks at various areas of social impact ranging from volunteering, children, participation, education and the environment.

10. Case Studies

The GSI Report 2015 presents in-depth case studies on:

  • Rabobank FIH Hockey World Cup 
  • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games  
  • Fifa World Cup 2014
  • IAAF/Al-Bank World Half Marathon Championships 2014
  • Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games

Each case study presents the key highlights of the event, and looks in detail at the economic, financial, sporting and social impacts of each event.

11. Events Data

Where do each of the 77 world championships and multi-sport games in 2014 rank, according to GSI’s innovative scoring system? The GSI Project has to date collated analysis data on over 1,500 top sports events and the events data pages present analysis, data and GSI ratings on the top events in 2014. 

12. Nations & Cities Index Review

How much has each top sports nation risen or fallen in the Sportcal Global Sports Nation Index since 2012? Russia might be the current leading Global Sports Nation, but which country leads the way per head of population, or by GDP per capita? The GSI Report 2015 also looks at the top 500 cities as measured by the Sportcal Global Sports Cities Index, the top sports cities by continent, and at which continents are increasing their share of events by the GSI rating system.


List of Events

Case studies analysed:
Rabobank FIH Men's & Women's World Cup 2014
20th Commonwealth Games 2014
FIFA World Cup 2014
IAAF/AL-Bank World Half Marathon Championships 2014
Olympic Winter Games 2014

Full list of Events analysed (including case studies):
Archery 12th Indoor Archery World Championships 2014
Archery World Field Archery Championships 2014
Athletics IAAF 15th World Indoor Athletics Championships 2014
Athletics IAAF 26th World Race Walking Cup 2014
Athletics IAAF/AL-Bank World Half Marathon Championships 2014
Badminton Li-Ning BWF World Championships 2014
Badminton Li-Ning BWF Thomas & Uber Cup Finals 2014
Basketball FIBA Basketball World Cup for Men 2014 
Basketball FIBA Basketball World Championship for Women 2014
Basketball FIBA 3x3 World Championships 2014 
Beach Handball World Beach Handball Championships 2014
Boxing AIBA Women's World Championships 2014  
Canoeing 2014 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships
Canoeing 2014 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships
Cricket ICC World Twenty20 2014 
Curling CPT World Men's Curling Championship 2014 
Curling Ford World Women's Curling Championship 2014
Cycling - BMX UCI BMX World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Cyclo-Cross UCI Cyclo-Cross World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Indoor UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Mountain Bike UCI Mountain Bike and Trials World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Mountain Bike UCI Mountain Bike Marathon World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Road UCI Road World Championships 2014 
Cycling - Track UCI Track World Championships 2014 
Diving 19th FINA Diving World Cup 2014 
Equestrian Alltech FEI World Equestrian Games 2014 
Fencing Fencing World Championships 2014 
Field Hockey Rabobank FIH Men's & Women's World Cup 2014 
Figure Skating ISU World Figure Skating Championships 2014 
Floorball 10th Men´s World Floorball Championships 2014
Games 20th Commonwealth Games 2014 
Games 17th Asian Games 2014 
Gymnastics - Artistic Artistic Gymnastics World Championships 2014 
Gymnastics - Rhythmic Rhythmic Gymnastics World Championships 2014 
Ice Hockey IIHF World Championship 2014 
Judo IJF World Championships 2014
Karate WKF World Championships 2014
Modern Pentathlon World Modern Pentathlon Championships 2014
Modern Pentathlon UIPM Biathle and Triathle World Championships 2014 
Olympics Olympic Winter Games 2014
Olympics Summer Youth Olympic Games 2014
Orienteering World Orienteering Championships 2014
Paralympics Paralympic Winter Games 2014
Racquetball 17th IRF World Championship 2014
Roller Sports World Roller Speed Skating Championships 2014
Rowing 2014 World Rowing Championships 
Rugby Union Women's Rugby World Cup 2014
Sailing 2014 ISAF Sailing World Championships
Sailing 2014 ISAF Women's Match Racing World Championship
Shooting ISSF Shooting World Championship 2014
Short Track Speed Skating ISU World Short Track Speed Skating Championships 2014
Ski Jumping FIS Ski Flying World Championships 2014
Soccer FIFA World Cup 2014
Softball ISF Women's World Championship 2014
Speed Skating Essent ISU World Allround Speed Skating Championships 2014
Speed Skating Essent ISU World Sprint Speed Skating Championships 2014 
Sport Climbing IFSC Boulder World Championships 2014
Sport Climbing IFSC Lead, Speed & Paraclimbing World Championship 2014 
Swimming 12th FINA World Swimming Championships (25m) 2014
Swimming - Synchronised FINA Synchronised Swimming World Cup 2014
Synchronised Skating ISU World Synchronized Skating Championships 2014
Table Tennis ZEN-NOH World Team Table Tennis Championships 2014
Taekwondo WTF World Cup Taekwondo Team Championships 2014
Trampoline 30th Trampoline Gymnastics World Championships 2014
Triathlon ITU World Triathlon Series 2014 (Grand Final)
Triathlon 2014 ITU Triathlon Mixed Relay World Championships
Triathlon 2014 ITU Cross Triathlon World Championships
Triathlon 2014 ITU Long Distance Triathlon World Championships
Triathlon 2014 ITU Winter Triathlon World Championships
Volleyball FIVB Men's Volleyball World Championship 2014
Volleyball FIVB Women's Volleyball World Championship 2014
Wakeboard IWWF Cable Wakeboard World Championships 2014
Water Polo 15th FINA Men's Water Polo World Cup 2014
Water Polo 16th FINA Women's Water Polo World Cup 2014
Waterskiing IWWF World Cableski Championships 2014
Weightlifting IWF World Weightlifting Championships 2014
Wrestling UWW World Championship 2014


List of Sports

Sports analysed in the 77 selected GSI events
Other featured sports
Archery American Football
Athletics Aussie Rules
Athletics Baseball
Badminton Canadian Football
Basketball College Sports
Beach Handball Golf
Boxing Motor Racing
Canoeing Rugby League
Cricket Tennis
Cycling - BMX  
Cycling - Cyclo-Cross  
Cycling - Indoor  
Cycling - Mountain Bike  
Cycling - Road  
Cycling - Track  
Field Hockey  
Figure Skating  
Gymnastics - Artistic  
Gymnastics - Rhythmic  
Ice Hockey  
Modern Pentathlon  
Roller Sports  
Rugby Union  
Short Track Speed Skating  
Ski Jumping  
Speed Skating  
Sport Climbing  
Swimming - Synchronised  
Synchronised Skating  
Table Tennis  
Water Polo  


List of Nations and Cities

Continent Nation City
Africa Ivory Coast Abidjan
Africa South Africa Bloemfontein
Africa South Africa Cape Town
Africa South Africa Durban
Africa South Africa Johannesburg
Africa South Africa Nelspruit
Africa South Africa Pietermaritzburg
Africa South Africa Polokwane
Africa South Africa Port Elizabeth
Africa South Africa Pretoria
Africa South Africa Rustenburg
Asia Bangladesh Chittagong
Asia Bangladesh Dhaka
Asia Bangladesh Sylhet
Asia China Beijing
Asia China Changshu
Asia China Changzhou
Asia China Chengdu
Asia China Dongguan
Asia China Guangzhou
Asia China Guiyang
Asia China Harbin
Asia China Kunshan
Asia China Nanjing
Asia China Nanning
Asia China Qingdao
Asia China Qinhuangdao
Asia China Shanghai
Asia China Shenzhen
Asia China Suzhou
Asia China Taicang
Asia China Urumqi
Asia China Weihai
Asia China Wuhan
Asia China Wuxi
Asia China Xining
Asia China Yabuli
Asia China Zhangjiagang
Asia India Ahmedabad
Asia India Bangalore
Asia India Chennai
Asia India Delhi
Asia India Hyderabad
Asia India Kolkata
Asia India Mohali
Asia India Mumbai
Asia India Nagpur
Asia Indonesia Jakarta
Asia Japan Fukuoka
Asia Japan Inawashiro
Asia Japan Kagoshima
Asia Japan Kumamoto
Asia Japan Mie
Asia Japan Nagano
Asia Japan Obihiro
Asia Japan Sapporo
Asia Japan Tokyo
Asia Japan Yokohama
Asia Jordan Amman
Asia Kazakhstan Almaty
Asia Kazakhstan Astana
Asia Korea Busan
Asia Korea Changwon
Asia Korea Cheongju
Asia Korea Daegu
Asia Korea Gangneung
Asia Korea Goyang
Asia Korea Gwangju
Asia Korea Gyeongju
Asia Korea Hoengseong
Asia Korea Incheon
Asia Korea Jeju
Asia Korea Pyeongchang
Asia Korea Seoul
Asia Korea Ulsan
Asia Korea Yeosu
Asia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Asia Malaysia Malacca Town
Asia Oman Muscat
Asia Phillipines Angeles City
Asia Qatar Doha
Asia Qatar Lusail
Asia Singapore Kallang
Asia Singapore Singapore
Asia Sri Lanka Colombo
Asia Sri Lanka Hambantota
Asia Sri Lanka Pallekele
Asia Taiwan Kaohsiung
Asia Taiwan Taichung
Asia Taiwan Taipei City
Asia Thailand Bangkok
Asia Thailand Nakhon Ratchasima
Asia United Arab Emirates Dubai
Asia Uzbekistan Tashkent
Europe Andorra Vallnord
Europe Austria Bad Mitterndorf
Europe Austria Gaishorn am See
Europe Austria Graz
Europe Austria Hochfilzen
Europe Austria Innsbruck
Europe Austria Kirchberg
Europe Austria Kreischberg
Europe Austria Leogang
Europe Austria Linz
Europe Austria Schladming
Europe Austria Seefeld
Europe Austria Vienna
Europe Azerbaijan Baku
Europe Belarus Minsk
Europe Belgium Antwerp
Europe Belgium Heusden-Zolder
Europe Belgium Koksijde
Europe Belgium Ostend
Europe Bulgaria Karnava
Europe Bulgaria Plovdiv
Europe Bulgaria Sofia
Europe Croatia Osijek
Europe Croatia Porec
Europe Croatia Split
Europe Croatia Varazdin
Europe Croatia Zadar
Europe Croatia Zagreb
Europe Cyprus Limassol
Europe Czech Republic Brno
Europe Czech Republic Harrachov
Europe Czech Republic Karlovy Vary
Europe Czech Republic Liberec
Europe Czech Republic Nove Mesto na Morave
Europe Czech Republic Ostrava
Europe Czech Republic Prague
Europe Czech Republic Racice
Europe Czech Republic Tabor
Europe Denmark Aarhus
Europe Denmark Copenhagen
Europe Denmark Esbjerg
Europe Denmark Frederikshavn
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Europe Germany Gelsenkirchen
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Europe Italy Trentino
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Europe Latvia Riga
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Europe Norway Eidsvoll
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Europe Poland Bydgoszcz
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Europe Portugal Espinho
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Europe Russia Chelyabinsk
Europe Russia Dubna
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Europe Russia Kazan
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Europe Russia Kolomna
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Europe Russia Krasnoyarsk
Europe Russia Moscow
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Europe Russia Rostov-on-Don
Europe Russia Samara
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Europe Russia Sochi
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Europe Serbia Belgrade
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Europe Sweden Are
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Europe Sweden Jonkoping
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Europe Sweden Lund
Europe Sweden Lysekil
Europe Sweden Malmo
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Europe Switzerland Winterthur
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Europe Turkey Adana
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Europe Ukraine Kiev
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North America Aruba Santa Cruz
North America Barbados Bridgetown
North America Canada Bromont
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Oceania New Zealand Rotorua
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Oceania Tahiti Papeete
South America Argentina Buenos Aires
South America Argentina Rosario
South America Brazil Barueri
South America Brazil Belo Horizonte
South America Brazil Brasilia
South America Brazil Cuiaba
South America Brazil Curitiba
South America Brazil Fortaleza
South America Brazil Manaus
South America Brazil Natal
South America Brazil Porto Alegre
South America Brazil Recife
South America Brazil Rio de Janeiro
South America Brazil Salvador
South America Brazil Santos
South America Brazil Sao Bernardo do Campo
South America Brazil Sao Paulo
South America Chile Santiago
South America Colombia Bogota
South America Colombia Bucaramanga
South America Colombia Cali
South America Colombia Cucuta
South America Colombia Ibague
South America Colombia Medellin
South America Colombia Neiva
South America Colombia Villavicencio
South America Peru Lima
South America Venezuela Caracas
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